From a cultural-historical perspective, learning is understood as a deeply social process whereby tools, practices, and habits of mind are developed through joint participation in culturally mediated and organized activity (Cole, 1996; Vygotsky, 1978). A view of learning as a cultural process, located in time and space, helps us to understand that people and their cultural practices both develop and transform through participation in the routine activities of relevant communities of practice. (…) By understanding the individual and his or her cultural means in relation to his or her contexts of development, this approach understands learning as a distributed phenomenon and, thereby, contests the tendency to create the Cartesian divide between the individual and the social (Engeström, 2008; Gutiérrez & Vossoughi, 2010). (…) Taking a dynamic, rather than static, view of culture also means understanding learning as an ongoing process of shifting participation within a cultural practice—one that contributes to the continued development of practices and communities (Rogoff, 2003). Learning as movement involves deploying repertoires of practice that can be leveraged across time, space, and activity (…). From this perspective, the work novices do to enter a practice, and the work all learners do to gain new understandings, tools, and expertise, is also the work of reinventing that practice (see Vianna & Stetsenko, this volume).
Vossoughi, S., & Gutiérrez, K. D. (2014). Studying Movement, Hybridity, and Change: Toward a Multi-sited Sensibility for Research on Learning Across Contexts and Borders. Learning in and across Contexts: Reimagining Education, National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook, 113(2), 603–632.