A boundary can be seen as a socio-cultural difference leading to discontinuity in action or interaction. Boundaries simultaneously suggest a sameness and continuity in the sense that within discontinuity two or more sites are relevant to one another in a particular way (133)
(…) We have discerned four mechanisms of learning at the boundary, which we summarize as identification, coordination, reflection, and transformation (142)
The reported processes of identification entail a questioning of the core identity of each of the intersecting sites. This questioning leads to renewed insight into what the diverse practices concern (142)
- Othering: the identification processes occur by defining one practice in light of another, delineating how it differs from the other practice. (142)
- Legitimate coexistence: the boundaries between practices are encountered and reconstructed, without necessarily overcoming discontinuities ( 143)
They analyze how effective means and procedures are sought allow-ing diverse practices to cooperate efficiently in distributed work, even in the absence of consensus (143).
- Communicative conection
- Efforts of translation
- Enhancing boundary permeability
(…) the role of boundary crossing in coming to realize and explicate differences between practices and thus to something new about their own and others’ practices (144-145).
- Perspective making
- Perspective taking
Transformation leads to profound changes in practices, potentially even the creation of a new, in-between practice, sometimes called a boundary practice (146).
- Recognizing a shared problem space
- Hybridization: Given a certain problem space, practices that are able to cross their boundaries engage in a creative pro-cess in which something hybrid—that is, a new cultural form—emerges (148)
- Crystallization: Crystallization also takes place by means of developing new routines or procedures that embody what has been created or learned (148)
- Maintaining uniqueness of the intersecting practices: it seems that transformation into changed or new practices does not go without some level of reinforcement of the established practices (149)
- Continuous joint work at the boundary: (…) to preserve the productivity of boundary crossing. This is where transformation seems almost opposite to the coordination mechanism, where the focus is on achieving a way to cross practices without much effort or awareness(149)
(…) we analyzed the learning processes described in the studies and discerned four dialogical learning mechanisms of boundaries: (a) identification, which is about coming to know what the diverse practices are about in relation to one another; (b) coordination, which is about creating cooperative and routinized exchanges between practices; (c) reflection, which is about expanding one’s perspectives on the practices; and, (d) transforma-tion, which is about collaboration and codevelopment of (new) practices (150)
Akkerman, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 132–169. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311404435