From a cultural-historical perspective, learning is understood as a deeply social process whereby tools, practices, and habits of mind are developed through joint participation in culturally mediated and organized activity (Cole, 1996; Vygotsky, 1978). A view of learning as a cultural process, located in time and space, helps us to understand that people and their cultural practices both develop and transform through participation in the routine activities of relevant communities of practice. (…) By understanding the individual and his or her cultural means in relation to his or her contexts of development, this approach understands learning as a distributed phenomenon and, thereby, contests the tendency to create the Cartesian divide between the individual and the social (Engeström, 2008; Gutiérrez & Vossoughi, 2010). (…) Taking a dynamic, rather than static, view of culture also means understanding learning as an ongoing process of shifting participation within a cultural practice—one that contributes to the continued development of practices and communities (Rogoff, 2003). Learning as movement involves deploying repertoires of practice that can be leveraged across time, space, and activity (…). From this perspective, the work novices do to enter a practice, and the work all learners do to gain new understandings, tools, and expertise, is also the work of reinventing that practice (see Vianna & Stetsenko, this volume).
Vossoughi, S., & Gutiérrez, K. D. (2014). Studying Movement, Hybridity, and Change: Toward a Multi-sited Sensibility for Research on Learning Across Contexts and Borders. Learning in and across Contexts: Reimagining Education, National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook, 113(2), 603–632.
Ecosystems, by contrast, are boundless, constantly able to grow, absorb new entities, adapt, react, and transform. They don’t acquire new elements by ingesting them, but by absorbing new components at the edges of the network. And when they do that, they create new value for the whole ecosystem.
It’s an understanding that your organization is not a bounded entity, complete unto itself, but part of a wider ecosystem. It comes with an implicit understanding that the solutions to your key challenges are not all inside the building, but are out there — and that you must locate and interact with them to thrive.
The new value is not inside, it’s out there, at the edges of the network.
A learning ecology is defined as the set of contexts found in physical or virtual spaces that provide opportunities for learning [Barron, 2004]. Each context is comprised of a unique configuration of activities, material resources, relationships, and the interactions that emerge from them (p. 195).
Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecology perspective. Human Development, 49(4), 193-224. doi:10.1159/000094368
An individual’s learning ecology comprises their process and set of contexts and interactions that provides them with opportunities and resources for learning, development and achievement. Each context comprises a unique configuration of purposes, activities, material resources, relationships and the interactions and mediated learning that emerge from them (…). Learning ecologies have temporal dimensions as well as spatial dimensions and they have the capability to connect different spaces and contexts existing simultaneously across a person’s life-course, as well as different spaces and contexts existing through time throughout their life-course.
But knowledge is infrastructure too. Science and technology are the basis of the modern economy and key to solving many serious environmental, social, and security challenges. Basic research, driven by curiosity, freedom, and imagination, provides the groundwork for all applied research and technology. And just as we have to break the endless cycle of temporary fixes to our transportation, long-term investments in knowledge are vital, especially nowadays when short-term objectives and results seem to capture the most attention and dollars.
Robbert Dijkgraaf. Knowledge Is a Kind of Infrastructure. Scientific american
En la investigación basada en evidencias, se considera que una evidencia es una unidad de conocimiento, resultado de un proceso de investigación empírica, que se usa para justificar una decisión en un ámbito profesional.
La evidencia no está dada sin más, sino que es un conocimiento que ha de ser producido. Al ser un enfoque que se aplica en diferentes disciplinas, en cada una de ellas el proceso de producción de evidencias puede variar. Sin embargo, como proceso estándar podrímos señalar aquél que empieza con una revisión de la literatura científica sobre una cuestión concreta. Se realiza un meta análisis con los criterios más exigentes de validez, relevancia y aplicabilidad hasta seleccionar las prácticas que mejores resultados ofrecen. A continuación esos resultados se prueban en la práctica real para comprobar lo que realmente funciona en nuevos contextos. Esas pruebas deben hacerse con muestras aleatorias y grupos de control. El objetivo es evitar sesgos y asegurar que la relación entre causa y efecto es inequívoca. Se evalúa a continuación la efectividad y eficiencia del proceso. Las prácticas que quedan al final del proceso se consideran evidencias que pueden sustentar decisiones acerca de qué práctica seguir o qué decisión tomar en cada caso.
Bjerre Jørn y Reimer, David. (2014). The Strategic use of Evidence on Teacher Education: Investigating the Research Report Genre en Karen Petersen, David Reimer y Ane Qvortrupo (Eds.). Evidence and Evidence-based Education in Denmark – The Current Debate (83-102). Aarhus: Department of Education. Aarrhus University.
Brophy, P. (2009). Narrative-based Practice. Farnham: Ashgate.
McKibbon, K.a. (1998), ‘Evidence based practice’, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 86:3, 396–401.
Straus, S. et al. (2005), Evidence-based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM, (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone).
The key pedagogical benefit wikis offer is epistemological. Wikis demonstrate, in a clear and obvious fashion, how knowledge is a function of communities engaged in ongoing discourse. Whereas conventional print scholarship tends to physically elide the evidence of its development, wikis highlight and preserve it in sedimentary or fossil layers. They also demonstrate and build upon the interconnectedness of knowledge and illustrate plainly that no discourse exists in isolation from other discourse. Finally, wikis make the fundamental importance of rhetoric clear to students. Successful wiki authors aren’t just knowledgeable; they are persuasive. Indeed, I would argue that the “objective tone” is the “grand style” of our times. The “I think,” “in my opinion,” and “I believe” of so much student writing betrays a lack of con‹dence, a timidity that comes at a cost. The wiki author must speak with what is truly a public voice. After all—the most convincing opin- ions are objective fact (p. 186).
Matt Barton. 2009. Is There a Wiki in This Class? Wikibooks and the Future of Higher Education en Barton, M., & Cummings, R. (Eds.). Wiki writing: Collaborative learning in the college classroom. University of Michigan Press.
The more people talk about cognitive function the more they describe a sociotechnical environment.
Bruno Latour. Rematerializing Humanities Thanks to Digital Traces. Keynote Digital Humanities 2014.
In fact, the analyst should admit to being quite moved by this hazardous configuration, this house of cards, palace of laws and mountain of paper, whose fragility by itself, without any other resources, warrants or reserves, secures the force of the law. ‘Let no one enter herein if he believes in the transcendence of the law’; that is what should be inscribed above the overly solemn staircase. There are no angels, demons or supermen here, only ordinary National School of Administration graduates with no other instruments than texts and words. The quality of the work here consists entirely in bodies, mouths and voices, processes of writing and archiving, regularly maintained conversations, and the meticulous fattening of files in grey or yellow folders. We should not be surprised if the Romans would have been astonished by the grandeur of this sort of immanence, which has absolutely nothing in common with learned passion, religious or political enthusiasm, keen hatred or the devastating risks of strategy. Darning, knitting and a ceaseless, patient, stubborn and pedestrian piece-working: a grey-on-grey that is much more beautiful, and above all much more just, than the bright colours of passion.
Bruno Latour. The making of law.
2.4.8 A sentence does not hold together because it is true, but because it holds together we say that it is “true.” What does it hold on to? Many things. Why? Because it has tied its fate to anything at hand that is more solid than itself. As a result, no one can shake it loose without shaking everything else.
2.5.1 It is not good enough to be strongest; they also want to be best. It is never enough to have won; they also want to be right.
Bruno Latour. Irreductions.
If student agency and empowerment is at the core of maker-centered learning, then the role of the teacher is to create an environment that supports students to construct their own meaning. To do this, teachers need to cultivate our own inquiry stance to support student-centered learning.
An inquiry stance is our underlying approach to teaching; it favors questions over directions, student voice over teacher voice, and process over outcome. It’s about thoughtful structure, intentionally choosing where students explore openly, and where there are limits and scaffolds. This doesn’t mean, however, that students have complete autonomy as the teacher sits back and watches.